Forschung & Nachwuchsförderung
Die Nachwuchs- und Forschungsförderung ist ein wichtiger Bereich innerhalb der DeGPT. Sowohl durch jährliche Preise der Falk-von-Reichenbachstiftung und der Elfriede-Dietrich-Stiftung als auch durch die Summer School und die DeGPT-Jahrestagungsstipendien unterstützten und fördern wir das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten junger Kolleg:innen. Die Forschungsergebnisse im deutschsprachigen Raum werden in der Fachzeitschrift Trauma & Gewalt – Forschung und Praxisfelder des Klett-Cotta Verlages publiziert. Im internationalen Raum nimmt das European Journal of Psychotraumatology diese Rolle ein, herausgegeben von der European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS).
European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Das European Journal of Psychotraumatology (EJPT) ist das offizielle Journal der ESTSS.
Die Artikel sind frei verfügbar (open access): www.tandfonline.com
Finden Sie hier ausgewählte Abstracts des EJPT
The ABCDE psychological first aid intervention decreases early PTSD symptoms but does not prevent it: results of a randomized-controlled trial
Background: Early Psychological First Aid (PFA) has been widely recommended for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its lack of empirical evidence of safety and effectiveness has been criticized.
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of PFA-ABCDE, an original PFA protocol, for preventing PTSD one month after the intervention and decreasing PTSD symptoms at one and six months of follow up.
Method: We assessed the eligibility of 1,140 adult survivors of recent trauma (≤ 72 hours) consulting five emergency departments in Chile. Two hundred twenty-one were randomized to receive either PFA-ABCDE (active listening, breathing retraining, categorization of needs, referral to ancillary services, and psychoeducation) or only psychoeducation. We used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess PTSD diagnosis. The Posttraumatic Checklist (PCL), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a 0–10 points analogue visual scale were used to assess PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and immediate distress relief after the intervention.
Results: We found no difference between the experimental and control groups in the frequency of PTSD one month after the intervention (PFA-ABCDE = 23/76 [30.3%], psychoeducation = 18/75 [24.0%], adjusted odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.63–3.07, p = .408). Immediately after the intervention, participants who received PFA-ABCDE reported greater distress relief (PFA-ABCDE mean = 9.06, psychoeducation mean = 8.55, Cohen’s d = 0.30, p = .038). Fewer PTSD symptoms were reported by those who received PFA-ABCDE one month after the intervention (PFA-ABCDE mean = 36.26, psychoeducation mean = 43.62, Cohen’s d = 0.42, p = .033). We found no difference in depressive symptoms at one-month follow up (p = .713) nor in PTSD symptoms six months after the intervention (p = .986).
Conclusions: PFA-ABCDE does not prevent PTSD diagnosis, but it provides immediate distress relief and decreases PTSD symptoms in the short term.
Neural functional connectivity during rumination in individuals with adverse childhood experiences
Background: Childhood adversity has been associated with greater risk of developing psychopathology, altered processing of emotional stimuli, and changes in neural functioning. Although the neural correlates of rumination have been previously described, little is known about how adverse childhood experiences are related to brain functioning during rumination.
Objective: This study explored differences in neural functional connectivity between participants with and without histories of childhood adversity, controlling for tendency to ruminate, during resting-state and induction of rumination.
Method: A total of 86 adults (51 women) took part. Based on a diagnostic clinical interview, participants were divided into groups with and without adverse childhood experiences. All participants underwent resting-state imaging and a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan where they performed a rumination induction task.
Results: Individuals with childhood adversities differed from those without adverse experiences in seed-based functional connectivity from right angular gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus during the rumination task. There were also group differences during resting-state in seed-based functional connectivity from the right angular gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus.
Conclusions: Childhood adversity is associated with altered brain functioning during rumination and resting-state, even after controlling for tendency to ruminate. Our results shed light on the consequences of early adversity. People who experienced childhood adversities differ from those with no adverse experiences in brain functional connectivity when engaged in negative repetitive self-referential thinking.
Keywords: trauma, stress, rumination, functional connectivity